The development of physical fitness is important for both the athlete’s performance and health. A complete program involving every aspect of the athlete’s psychological and mental abilities is indispensable for success. The idea of total conditioning was a criterion used in the past by the Soviet Union and Germany for the training of their athletes. In this concept for the development of the athlete were involved sports coaches, doctors and scientists who working as a team tried to get the best out of each athlete. In the mid 90’s coaches detected the need for individualized training plans to improve the development of each participant. Many professional athletes began to have their own trainers for the improvement of physical fitness, sports psychologists, sports trainers, nutritionists and even massage therapists to assist in physical and mental preparation, injury management, nutrition and post-training and post-competition recovery.

The basic functioning of each physiological system is vital to the health, performance and success of each athlete. As well as the need for analysis of any sports conditioning program that evaluates the demands of each sport, including a range of metabolic requirements, the possibilities of injury to the different parts of the body involved, and the different types of muscle actions needed or biomechanical characteristics of the sport. From the point of view of sports medicine is the part of the pre-competition examination by the medical team to rule out possible pathologies and establish the health status of the athlete. Documentation of previous injuries in order to be able to prescribe the following exercises and training avoiding new injuries. From the point of view of sports training different tests are carried out to establish the physical condition of the athlete. In this way coaches and athletes can establish goals, measure progress and determine the effectiveness of each aspect of the program in its different phases.


There are several factors that are considered important in sports performance. In any case the degree of dependence of each component is completely dependent on the specificity of each sport (for example: swimming vs. diving) or even in some cases, within the same sport (for example: a football campsite vs. goalkeeper). Hence, the sporting characteristics that go beyond height and other hereditary biological factors are: Power, Strength, Speed, Agility, Coordination, Speed, Flexibility, Local Muscular Resistance and Aerobic Capacity and Cardiovascular Resistance.


Power can be the most important factor in sports performance as the ability to produce it over a period of time is vital to most of the skills and abilities typical of each sport (e.g. vertical jump for a volleyball player). Power plays a crucial role in all performance sports. In fact the absence or inability to maintain it at a given moment is synonymous with fatigue.
The manifestation of power is highly related to strength, especially at high levels of strength performance, but must be developed separately or separately as a component of physical fitness. This is especially important when the development of acceleration is vital to the requirements of a sport or a range of rapid force development at certain times of the Force-Time curve. Although this may require the athlete to reach maximum force in 0.4 to 0.5 seconds to execute a maximum repetition, the time available to exert force in a competition can be as little as 0.1 second or less, after that it becomes irrelevant or uncommon.


The ability to produce maximum strength is a classic pattern of performance that all athletes possess. Some depend on this characteristic more than others (e.g. long distance runners vs. wrestlers). Strength is vital for the development of power at high levels of power manifestation as mentioned above and provides the necessary physical stimulation for the collateral development of other systems such as connective tissue. It also involves motor units necessary for the development of muscular hypertrophy. Some studies indicate that exercising with loads in the range of 3 to 5 maximum repetitions using multiple sets stimulates the development of strength and hypertrophy of all types of muscle fibers as they are all involved in training of this type.

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